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Everything about Diabetes in children: types, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Today the cases of diabetes are going on increasing in the world. Blame it on the lifestyle, fast food habits, obesity or other end number of factors. Lot of elderly people suffer from diabetes. Sometimes mother may get diabetes during pregnancy. This type of diabetes is called gestational diabetes. And sometimes it also happens that the mother is already having diabetes before pregnancy. In gestational diabetes and the mother having diabetes before pregnancy, there are chances that the disease is genetically transferred to the developing foetus. Today in this blog we will discuss about Diabetes in children.

Diabetes in children

The most common type of diabetes in children is Type 1 diabetes. This is also called juvenile diabetes. In type 1 diabetes the pancreas does not make insulin at all. Insulin is produced by the pancreas. This helps in digesting the sugar in the body. Without insulin the sugar does not get digested. The cells of the body does not get enough energy. But, now a days the kids are also getting type 2 diabetes.

Two types of diabetes in children

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is considered to be genetic. In type 1 diabetes the immune system of our body attacks and kills all the cells responsible for producing insulin in pancreas. The pancreas lose its ability to produce insulin. The type 1 diabetes is usually seen in kids and teens. Type 1 diabetes once happens does not go away. The kids and teens suffering from type 1 diabetes usually have to depend on insulin injections and insulin pumps to maintain their sugar level.

Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 or type 2 diabetes may develop slowly or develop suddenly. The person may not be aware that he or she has diabetes for a long period of time.

Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes

The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes are as follows:

  • Weight loss
  • Peeing a lot
  • Tiredness
  • Drinking a lot of liquids

Weight loss

Kids with type 1 diabetes eat a lot. But, do not gain weight. This is because the body breaks down muscles and stored fat in order to provide energy to the cells of the body.

Peeing a lot

Kids with high glucose levels need to pee more often. Kidneys flush out the extra glucose from the body through urine.

Drinking a lot of liquids

The kids with type 1 diabetes need to pee a lot and hence they lose a lot of liquid. This is the reason they need to drink a lot of water in order to maintain the fluid level in the body.

Tiredness

The body cannot use glucose properly for nutrition. The cells of the body cannot manage properly and start to die due to starvation. As a result of this the person feels tired.

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

By checking the blood glucose levels, the doctor will come to know that the kid has type 1 diabetes or not. When the high blood sugar levels are detected, the doctor will ask to perform a few more tests. These tests will tell the doctor if the kid has type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes

In type 2 diabetes the pancreas is able to produce insulin but, the body reacts to it differently. The glucose is not able to enter the cells of the body. The cells do not get enough nutrition. This results in high blood sugar level. The pancreas work harder to produce enough insulin. Not all people having insulin resistance get type 2 diabetes. But, when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin the person will get type 2 diabetes.

It is unknown exactly what causes type 2 diabetes. But, most of the times it is genetic. People who are suffering from type 2 diabetes have at least one parent who has diabetes. Most of the people who have type 2 diabetes are obese. Type 2 diabetes had mostly affected adults and kids in the age of puberty. But, now a days kids also are affected by type 2 diabetes.

Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes

The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes are almost similar to that of type 1 diabetes. The body responds to the increased glucose level in almost similar way. These symptoms include

  • Need to pee a lot
  • Drinking a lot of fluids
  • Feeling tired a lot

Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

Doctors test the blood glucose levels of the kids that have type 2 diabetes. Also, doctor may recommend the test of blood glucose level for the kids who do not have the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, but are obese.  The doctors may also perform the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) test to see how the blood glucose level of the kid is doing.

Treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adult and children can be treated with proper medication, diet and exercise. For type 1 diabetes the kids need to take daily shots of insulin.

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