The Importance of Pedicure for Diabetic Feet

Diabetic foot syndrome is a set of anatomical and functional changes occurring in the tissues, due to which the feet need special care. Pedicure is necessary for diabetes, because. diabetic foot care requires professional, attentive care. The lack of foot care can lead to problems up to abscesses and even gangrene. 

What Are the Symptoms of Diabetic Foot?

Diabetic foot is a complex of symptoms that appear due to impaired microcirculation in tissues. A high concentration of glucose in the blood in diabetes mellitus provokes changes in the structure and functions of blood vessels and peripheral nerves. As a result, the elasticity of blood vessels decreases, blood viscosity increases, tissue metabolism is disturbed, and nerve endings lose their sensitivity. These changes cause a decrease in the protective function of tissues, the slightest injury to the foot leads to the formation of difficult-to-heal wounds and necrosis. 

  • Symptoms of diabetic foot: 
  • Pain in the feet while walking;
  • Rapid fatigue of the legs; 
  • Swelling of tissues; 
  • Areas of hyperpigmentation;
  • Calluses and scuffs;
  • Dry skin, hyperkeratosis (excessive thickening of the stratum corneum of the skin); 
  • Long-term non-healing cracks; 
  • The appearance of ulcers on the fingers and soles (areas that experience increased stress when walking);
  • Foot deformity; 
  • Decreased tissue sensitivity. 

The severity of symptoms depends on the form and degree of diabetic foot syndrome. For an accurate diagnosis, diabetic patients should consult with a foot doctor

With a diabetic foot, any mechanical impact on the feet can lead to ulcers and serious complications. The same effect causes a slight increase in the exertion on the legs; even a thickening of the stratum corneum can act as a loading element. 

Risk factors that can lead to severe complications such as: 

  • Dermatomycosis and onychomycosis; 
  • Calluses; 
  • Wet and dry corns; 
  • Ingrown toenails;
  • Cracks in the heels;
  • Dry, rough skin; 
  • Bruises. 

Due to the reduced tissue sensitivity in diabetics, the likelihood of skin damage increases if you do your own pedicure at home. If the hygiene rules are not followed, the wounds become easily infected, the bacterial infection spreads quickly and spreads over the surrounding tissues, and the risk of developing an abscess and gangrene increases. Another risk factor is uncomfortable shoes. Due to reduced sensitivity, patients do not feel friction and continue to walk in tight shoes. Wet and dry calluses, cracks quickly appear on the skin, which cause ulcerative lesions; when squeezing the foot with shoes, ischemic tissue necrosis develops within a few hours. 

Important Features of Pedicure for Diabetic Feet

Pedicure for diabetes mellitus is an addition to drug treatment and prevention of diabetic foot, so it should be done regularly every 2-3 weeks. A pedicure for diabetes sets the following goals: 

  • Removal of corns and calluses;
  • Tidying up the nails; 
  • Improvement of tissue metabolism; 
  • Reducing the load on the feet by removing areas of hyperkeratosis;
  • Treatment of micro damages of the skin; 
  • Hygienic care; 
  • Prevention of bacterial and fungal infections; 
  • Skin softening, prevention of dryness and cracking;
  • Recognizing the signs of diabetic foot;
  • Prevention of complications caused by diabetic foot. 

Foot care for diabetics should be especially gentle and thorough, so pedicure has its own characteristics. Cutting and sharp instruments are not used. Only alcohol-free antiseptics are required. Soaking the skin is not used; in extreme cases, the duration of the bath should not exceed five minutes at a water temperature of 36-37 ° C. 

Files, grinding attachments, and other devices for processing leather should be soft, and fine-grained. You can not cut the skin and cuticles (the skin is gently polished, the cuticle is pushed back). The procedure is carried out under strict antiseptic conditions. A pedicure for diabetes mellitus can be performed only by a podiatrist - a doctor who deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of foot diseases. 

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